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Bank holidays represent a crucial part of British life, punctuating our calendars with long weekends that provide a much-anticipated respite from the hustle and bustle of work. Each one is steeped in its own unique history, a tapestry woven from the threads of tradition, culture, and legislative action. However, few bank holidays evoke as much history and symbolism as the Early May Bank Holiday. Let’s delve into the evolution of this key date, shedding light on its origins, how it came to be institutionalised, and the traditions that have emerged around it.

Origins: The Fertility Festivals of Old

The genesis of the Early May Bank Holiday can be traced back to ancient times, when it was celebrated as Beltane, one of the four main festivals of the Gaelic calendar. Occurring halfway between the spring equinox and summer solstice, Beltane was seen as a time of transition, marking the start of the pastoral summer season.

Beltane Traditions

  1. Fire: Beltane, translated to “bright fire,” was associated with special bonfires. These fires were believed to have protective properties. Cattle were often driven between two fires to protect them from diseases before being led to their summer pastures.
  2. Maypole Dancing: A tradition that has persevered into modern times, maypole dancing was an integral part of Beltane celebrations. The maypole, a tall wooden pole, would be decorated with colourful ribbons. Dancers, each holding a ribbon, would dance around the pole, intertwining the ribbons in complex patterns.
  3. Fertility Symbols: As a fertility festival, Beltane involved various symbolic rituals intended to ensure the prosperity of crops and livestock. Many customs revolved around symbolic marriage and the notion of fertility, including the crowning of a May Queen and King.

The Industrial Revolution and the Evolution of May Day

As the centuries rolled on, these ancient customs gradually merged with the more secular celebration of May Day. The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century brought with it a seismic shift in the way society functioned. This resulted in the six-day working week, leaving workers with little leisure time. The need for rest and relaxation led to the rise of the tradition of ‘taking a May break’ or ‘going a-Maying’ on the first of May.

The Emergence of Workers’ Rights

The transition from Beltane to May Day also coincided with the growing workers’ rights movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. May Day became internationally recognised as International Workers’ Day following the 1886 Haymarket affair in Chicago, where a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour workday turned violent.

In the UK, this spirit of solidarity was echoed in the establishment of the May Day observance by the Second International, a federation of socialist and labour parties, in 1890. Despite this, May Day was not officially recognised as a public holiday in the UK for many more decades.

Institutionalisation: The Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971

The observance of the first Monday of May as a bank holiday in the UK is a relatively recent development. It was officially declared in 1971, under the Banking and Financial Dealings Act. This act significantly reformed previous bank holiday legislation, outlining the bank holidays recognised across the UK.

Why the First Monday in May?

The choice of the first Monday in May was not arbitrary. It provided a way to bridge the historical celebration of May Day and the contemporary need for regularised time off work. By institutionalising this day as a bank holiday, the government effectively endorsed an already popular tradition, making it a part of the official calendar and extending the opportunity for rest and celebration to all citizens.

Modern Celebrations and Traditions

Despite the holiday’s roots in ancient fertility festivals and workers’ rights observances, modern celebrations of the Early May Bank Holiday are more a blend of community events, family outings, and local customs.

Enduring Traditions

  1. Maypole Dancing: This tradition continues to be a popular event, especially in rural communities. The weaving of the maypole ribbons is often accompanied by fairs and carnivals, creating a vibrant and festive atmosphere.
  2. Morris Dancing: Another folk tradition, Morris dancing involves rhythmic stepping and choreographed routines, often performed by sides (groups) of dancers. This tradition has seen a resurgence in recent years and is commonly performed on the Early May Bank Holiday.
  3. Well Dressing: In some parts of the UK, particularly in Derbyshire and Staffordshire, there is a tradition of decorating wells and springs with designs created from flower petals, a custom known as well dressing.

Contemporary Customs

  1. Family Outings: For many, the Early May Bank Holiday is simply a chance to spend quality time with family and friends, whether that involves a picnic in the park, a backyard barbecue, or a trip to the seaside.
  2. Sporting Events: The long weekend is often packed with sporting events, including football matches, horse racing, and rugby fixtures, providing entertainment for sports enthusiasts across the nation.


The Early May Bank Holiday, rich in its historical tapestry and modern relevance, remains an integral part of British life. Whether it’s used as a time to delve into ancient customs, to honour the labour movement, or simply to enjoy the burgeoning warmth of early summer with loved ones, it provides a welcome pause in our busy lives. As we look forward to the next May Bank Holiday, let’s take a moment to appreciate the historical journey that has shaped this cherished day off.